Rome: Pantheon (Italy)

Pantheon

This is one of the most incredible works of architecture in the world, and a personal favourite. Nothing I write here will be sufficient to explain the power of the building. My photos may assist a little, but you’ll just have to visit and experience it for yourself.

Pantheon, Rome 13_Stephen Varady photo ©

As you walk towards the building from the side streets you will see rough brick walls with embedded arches, some patchy repairs and weeds growing on top, and you won’t be sure if this is what you were looking for.

Pantheon, Rome 01_Stephen Varady photo ©

Pantheon, Rome 02_Stephen Varady photo ©

As you move around, you will see some of the very few remaining panels of marble cladding that weren’t removed over the centuries.

Pantheon, Rome 03_Stephen Varady photo ©

Eventually, you find the portico and colonnades that incorporate the earlier, smaller square Pantheon of Agrippa from 27BC.

Pantheon, Rome 04_Stephen Varady photo ©

The entry was once via stairs, but the streets were raised over time resulting in the current direct entry.

Pantheon, Rome 05_Stephen Varady photo ©

Pantheon, Rome 06_Stephen Varady photo ©

13 of the 16 columns are original, as are the enormous 12m high bronze entry doors.

Pantheon, Rome 07_Stephen Varady photo ©

Pantheon, Rome 08_Stephen Varady photo ©

It is the interior that is spectacular – a giant dome with oculus drawing a shaft of light inside.

Pantheon, Rome 09_Stephen Varady photo ©

Pantheon, Rome 10_Stephen Varady photo ©

The dome is 43.3m diameter with a 9.1m oculus, and the space is also of the same height, meaning that a 43.3m sphere could fit perfectly within the construction.

Pantheon, Rome 11_Stephen Varady photo ©

Furthermore, the structure is not of brick but concrete and is still the largest non-reinforced concrete dome in the world.

Pantheon, Rome 12_Stephen Varady photo ©

It is written that the dome was built over a huge mound of earth, that was removed once the concrete had set. There are also 3 different layers of concrete with different aggregates of differing weights with heavier travertine at the lowest section, then terracotta or tufa (volcanic stone) in the middle and pumice in the highest section.

Pantheon, Rome 13_Stephen Varady photo ©

There are various explanations for the Pantheon’s original uses but in 609 the building was converted into a Christian church for St Mary and the Martyrs.

A part of the beauty and richness of the building is the layering of all its previous histories, but most of all it is the vastness of the space and the soft light from the oculus covering all of the surfaces and materials within, while one watches the direct circle of sunlight move across the space.

Pantheon, Rome 14_Stephen Varady photo ©

Pantheon, Rome 15_Stephen Varady photo ©

Carefully located holes in the slightly sloping floor drain any rainwater that might fall through the oculus.

Pantheon, Rome 16_Stephen Varady photo ©

Pantheon, Rome 17_Stephen Varady photo ©

Upon leaving, one might take a seat at the corner café, enjoy the local cuisine while studying the passing people and the Pantheon’s exterior as the sun disappears.

Pantheon, Rome 19_Stephen Varady photo ©

Pantheon, Rome 20_Stephen Varady photo ©

Pantheon, Rome 21_Stephen Varady photo ©

Pantheon, Rome 22_Stephen Varady photo ©

Pantheon, Rome 23_Stephen Varady photo ©

IMAGES

 

FURTHER INFORMATION:

Place: Pantheon

Architect: Hadrian (118-128)

Photographer: Stephen Varady

Map: Pantheon

 

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